基于InSAR数据分析四川盆地南部长宁页岩气区块地表形变场基本特征

包雨鑫 孙建宝 李涛 梁存任 詹艳 韩静 李永生 张景发

包雨鑫,孙建宝,李涛,梁存任,詹艳,韩静,李永生,张景发. 2022. 基于InSAR数据分析四川盆地南部长宁页岩气区块地表形变场基本特征. 地震学报,44(3):427−451 doi: 10.11939/jass.20210064
引用本文: 包雨鑫,孙建宝,李涛,梁存任,詹艳,韩静,李永生,张景发. 2022. 基于InSAR数据分析四川盆地南部长宁页岩气区块地表形变场基本特征. 地震学报,44(3):427−451 doi: 10.11939/jass.20210064
Bao Y X,Sun J B,Li T,Liang C R,Zhan Y,Han J,Li Y S,Zhang J F. 2022. Characteristics of surface deformation field of Changning shale gas block in southern Sichuan basin with InSAR data. Acta Seismologica Sinica,44(3):427−451 doi: 10.11939/jass.20210064
Citation: Bao Y X,Sun J B,Li T,Liang C R,Zhan Y,Han J,Li Y S,Zhang J F. 2022. Characteristics of surface deformation field of Changning shale gas block in southern Sichuan basin with InSAR data. Acta Seismologica Sinica44(3):427−451 doi: 10.11939/jass.20210064

基于InSAR数据分析四川盆地南部长宁页岩气区块地表形变场基本特征

doi: 10.11939/jass.20210064
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(41774043)、中国地震局地质研究所基本科研业务专项(IGCEA1919)和科技部龙计划四期地震监测项目(32431)联合资助
详细信息
    作者简介:

    包雨鑫,在读硕士研究生,主要从事页岩气开采的形变检测与研究,e-mail:18543437200@163.com

    通讯作者:

    孙建宝,博士,研究员,主要从事干涉合成孔径雷达地壳形变研究,e-mail:sunjianbao@ies.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: P315.72+5

Characteristics of surface deformation field of Changning shale gas block in southern Sichuan basin with InSAR data

  • 摘要: 近年来随着我国页岩气大规模开采,四川盆地南部活动构造相对稳定的地区出现了一系列微震和有感地震,甚至是破坏性地震。这些地震是否为工业开采所诱发,目前已有研究从时空相关性给出了一些统计推断,本文则从形变观测角度分析页岩气开采能否产生可以检测到的地面形变,以揭示形变信息与页岩气开采的关系,尝试为页岩气开采提供有效的监测手段。基于长波ALOS-2卫星雷达数据对长宁页岩气区块近两三年内的InSAR地表形变展开探测,检测页岩气大规模生产可能造成的地面形变及其基本特征,同时使用Sentinel-1卫星雷达数据分析页岩气开发活跃时段内的形变时间序列信息。结果显示:考虑到不同观测技术的误差水平和观测角度差异,两种卫星数据均反映了一致的地表形变分布,且形变场与页岩气开采井的空间分布有很好的对应关系;压裂注液过程会造成地表快速隆升,生产过程中随着流体扩散地表会出现沉降和水平运动,初步揭示出页岩气生产过程中地面形变的非稳态变形特征。这表明在四川盆地南部复杂的形变观测条件下,InSAR技术是页岩气开采有效的监测手段,能够弥补地震学观测的不足。

     

  • 1  四川盆地构造背景及地震活动性时空分布

    (a) 四川盆地地震构造和1970年之后的地震分布,地震目录数据来源于国家地震科学数据中心(2021),GPS数据来源于Wang和Shen (2020

    1.  Tectonic settings of Sichuan basin and spatio-temporal distribution of its seismicity

    (a) Seismotectonics of Sichuan basin and earthquake distribution since 1970,where earthquake catalog from National Earthquake Data Center (2021),GPS data from Wang and Shen (2020

    图  1  四川盆地构造背景及地震活动性时空分布

    (b) 2009年以来威远和长宁地区地震的空间分布及M4以上地震的震源机制解(GCMT,2021),其中红色震源机制球代表疑似采盐注水引起的地震事件,蓝色代表疑似水力压裂引起的事件,黑色代表天然地震;(c) 长宁页岩气开采区块附近褶皱迹线和地表断层分布;(d) 2009年以来长宁区块M>0地震的时间演化图

    Figure  1.  Tectonic settings of Sichuan basin and spatio-temporal distribution of its seismicity

    (b) Spatial distribution of earthquakes in Weiyuan and Changning areas since 2009 and focal mechanisms of earthquakes larger than M4 (GCMT,2021),where red beach balls represent seismic events suspected to be caused by water injection and salt extraction,blue ones represent events suspected to be caused by hydraulic fracturing,and black ones represent natural earthquakes;(c) Fold traces and surface faults around Changning shale gas block. Solid black lines are Changning anticline and Jianwu syncline;(d) Evolution of M>0 earthquakes in Changning block since 2009

    图  2  功率谱滤波后的ALOS-2差分干涉相位结果

    (a) 升轨ScanSAR模式差分干涉图,成像时间为2016年8月7日至2019年9月15日;(b) 降轨StripMap模式差分干涉图,成像时间为2017年6月12日至2019年7月8日

    Figure  2.  ALOS-2 differential interferometry phases with power spectrum filtering

    (a) Differential interferogram in ascending orbit with ScanSAR mode,imaging from August 7,2016 to September 15,2019; (b) Differential interferogram in descending orbit with StripMap mode,imaging from June 12,2017 to July 8,2019

    图  3  利用距离向信号频谱分割法估计电离层延迟相位

    (a) 升轨ScanSAR模式图像的电离层相位估计结果;(b) 降轨StripMap模式图像的电离层相位估计结果;(c) 升轨ScanSAR模式图像去除电离层相位的缠绕相位;(d) 降轨StripMap模式图像去除电离层相位的缠绕相位

    Figure  3.  Estimation of the ionospheric phase delay by range split-spectrum method

    (a) Ionospheric phase estimated from ascending orbit image with ScanSAR mode;(b) Ionospheric phase estimated from descending orbit image with StripMap mode;(c) Wrapped phase estimated from ascending orbit image with ScanSAR mode after removing ionospheric phase;(d) Wrapped phase estimated from descending orbit image with StripMap mode after removing ionospheric phase

    图  4  大气对流层延迟校正及长波趋势相位校正

    (a,b) 基于ERA5模型去除升、降轨对流层延迟误差后的图像;(c,d) 长波趋势相位校正后的图像,其中蓝色方框表示本研究的形变区

    Figure  4.  Atmospheric troposphere delay correction and long wavelength trend phase correction

    (a,b) Images after removing tropospheric delay errors in ascending and descending orbits based on the ERA5 model, respectively;(c,d) Images after long wavelength trend phase correction,where blue boxes denote the deformation area of this study

    图  5  基于长宁页岩气开发区Sentinel-1雷达数据得到的升轨(a)和降轨(b) PS-InSAR线性速度场

    图中黑点表示该区块中已知页岩气井的空间分布

    Figure  5.  PS-InSAR linear velocity field in ascending (a) and descending (b) orbits obtained from Sentinel-1 radar data around Changning shale gas block

    The black dots indicate spatial distribution of known shale gas wells in Changning shale gas block

    图  6  长宁页岩气区块近场ALOS-2干涉形变位移场及剖面图

    长宁地震序列和水力压裂致震的震源机制解来源于Lei等(2019a),其余2015年和2017年的两次地震的震源机制解来源于GCMT (2021);白色虚线框表示2019年6月17日长宁地震形变场(a) 升轨ScanSAR模式图像得到的页岩气区块形变位移场,成像间隔为3年;(b) 降轨StripMap模式图像得到的页岩气区块形变位移场,成像间隔为2年;(c) 图(a)中的AA′和图(b)中的BB′形变位移场剖面,两剖面在同一位置

    Figure  6.  ALOS-2 interferometry displacement field and profiles in the near field of Changning shale gas block

    The focal mechanism solution of the Changning earthquake sequence and hydraulic fracturing are from Lei et al (2019a),the remaining two earthquakes in 2015 and 2017 are from GCMT (2021). The white dashed box represents the deformation field of the Changning earthquake occurred on June 17,2019 (a) Deformation displacement field of shale gas block obtained from ascending orbit data in ScanSAR mode,and the imaging interval is three years;(b) Deformation displacement field of shale gas block obtained from descending orbit data in StripMap mode,and the imaging interval is two years; (c) Deformation displacements on the profiles AA′ in Fig. (a) and BB′ in Fig. (b),and the two profiles are at the same location

    图  7  长宁页岩气区块近场升降轨Sentinel-1数据的LOS向线性速度场

    图(a)和(b)中KK′为图8a中二维地震反射剖面位置,OO′为图8b中断层破碎带的北界;图(c)中红色直线为线性速度模型拟合的各点位移。(a) 升轨速度场;(b) 降轨速度场;(c) 图(a)和图(b)中P1P2P3P4点的位移时间序列;(d) 升轨数据剖面CC′和降轨数据剖面DD′上的形变速率变化

    Figure  7.  Linear velocity field of Sentinel-1 data in LOS direction in the near field of Changning shale gas block

    In Figs. (a) and (b) KK′ is the location of the two-dimensional seismic reflection profile in Fig. 8a,and OO′ is the north boundary of a fault fracture zone in Fig. 8b;in Fig. (c) the red straight lines are the displacements of each point by linear velocity fitting. (a) Velocity field in ascending orbit;(b) Velocity field in descending orbit;(c) The displacement time series of points P1P2P3 and P4 in Figs. (a) and (b),respectively;(d) Variation of deformation rates on the profile CC′ in ascending orbit and profile DD′ in descending orbit

    图  8  跨越长宁开采区的二维地震反射剖面

    (a) KK′剖面(图7)对应的地层结构和近年来长宁附近发生的较大地震事件及其震源机制解(Li et al,2021);(b) 图7d形变剖面中15—17 km处断层破碎带附近的二维地震反射剖面,其位置见图1c;(c) 长宁地区的沉积地层序列(Li et al,2021

    Figure  8.  Two-dimensional seismic reflection profile across the Changning shale gas block

    (a) The stratigraphic structure corresponding to the profile KK′ (Fig. 7) and several large-magnitude events near Changning area in recent years and their focal mechanism solutions (Li et al,2021);(b) The two-dimensional seismic reflection profile near a fault fracture zone at 15−17 km of the deformation profile in Fig. 7d,and the location of the profile is shown in Fig. 1c;(c) Sedimentary stratigraphic sequence in Changning area (Li et al,2021

    图  9  MS≥5.0地震引起的地表形变与页岩气开采区形变的关系

    (a) 2017年6月12日至2019年7月8日期间的ALOS-2降轨页岩气区块形变场,图中矩形AB分别为珙县地震和兴文地震引起的地表形变,区域C为页岩气开采引起的地表形变,地震定位结果来自Lei等(2019b),H18井位置源于本研究实地野外调查;(b) 2018年12月30日至2019年1月11日期间的Sentinel-1 LOS向InSAR形变图

    Figure  9.  The relationship between the surface deformation caused by the MS≥5.0 earthquakes and the deformation of shale gas exploitation

    (a) ALOS-2 descending deformation field of shale gas block from June 12,2017 to July 8,2019,where the rectangles A and B are the surface deformation caused by the Gongxian and Xingwen earthquakes,C is the surface deformation caused by shale gas exploitation,earthquake location results are from Lei et al2019b),and the location of well H18 is from our field investigation; (b) Sentinel-1 LOS InSAR deformation map from December 30,2018 to January 11,2019

    表  1  本研究所用ALOS-2 PALSAR数据的参数

    Table  1.   ALOS-2 PALSAR data parameters used in this study

    主景日期从景日期入射角/°卫星方向角/°轨道垂直基线/m
    2016-08-072019-09-1539−10.2升轨(146)75.7
    2017-06-122019-07-0840−169.9降轨(37)−27.6
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-04-29
  • 修回日期:  2021-07-31
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  • 刊出日期:  2022-06-27

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