In order to recover the attenuation loss caused by the vibration wave energy in the process of propagation, the inverse Q
filtering method based on the convolution principle and the improved generalized S-transform is proposed. Through the vibration attenuation compensation model test, the time-frequency characteristics of the test data are analyzed by improving the generalized S-transform, and the energy distribution of the signal and the corresponding relationship between time and frequency are obtained. The method of quality factor based on convolution principle is used to obtain the time-varying Q
value. The test data are processed using inverse Q
filtering, and the vibration wave energy is compensated. The results show that the inverse Q
filtering method proposed in this paper improves the compensation effect of seismic wave energy attenuation, broadens the frequency band of seismic data, improves the resolution of seismic data, and is conducive to the development of high-resolution seismic exploration, deep signal enhancement and oil and gas reservoir prediction.