伍德拉克裂谷地区的海底地震仪方位和地壳结构研究

高佳 于有强

高佳,于有强. 2022. 伍德拉克裂谷地区的海底地震仪方位和地壳结构研究. 地震学报,44(0):1−22 doi: 10.11939/jass.20220091
引用本文: 高佳,于有强. 2022. 伍德拉克裂谷地区的海底地震仪方位和地壳结构研究. 地震学报,44(0):1−22 doi: 10.11939/jass.20220091
Gao J,Yu Y Q. 2022. Ocean bottom seismograph orientation and crustal structure of the Woodlark Rift. Acta Seismologica Sinica,44(0):1−22 doi: 10.11939/jass.20220091
Citation: Gao J,Yu Y Q. 2022. Ocean bottom seismograph orientation and crustal structure of the Woodlark Rift. Acta Seismologica Sinica44(0):1−22 doi: 10.11939/jass.20220091

伍德拉克裂谷地区的海底地震仪方位和地壳结构研究

doi: 10.11939/jass.20220091
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金面上项目(42074052)、上海市青年科技启明星计划项目(22QA1409600)和上海佘山地球物理国家野外科学观测研究站开放基金(2020K04)共同资助
详细信息
    作者简介:

    高佳,硕士研究生,主要从事接收函数方面的地壳构造研究,e-mail:1179367666@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    于有强,博士,副教授,主要从事裂谷深部构造方面的研究,e-mail:yuyouqiang@tongji.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: P315.31

Ocean bottom seismograph orientation and crustal structure of the Woodlark Rift

  • 摘要: 伍德拉克裂谷位于巴布亚新几内亚东南部,是发育在澳大利亚板块和西南太平洋板块碰撞带中的年轻大陆裂谷,为研究汇聚构造背景下裂谷起始演化的地壳结构提供了理想场所。伍德拉克裂谷海域地区海水层的存在使得获取高质量地震数据成为难题,而数据的获取主要依赖海底地震仪(ocean bottom seismograph,缩写为OBS)。OBS的布放一般是自由下落式,其地震计的北向水平分量方位与地理北向通常不一致,这使得利用三分量波形数据的反演结果产生较大误差甚至失效,例如接收函数方法。为确定伍德拉克裂谷地区OBS水平分量的方位偏转角度,本文同时引入纵波和瑞雷面波偏振分析方法进行方位校正,并利用校正后的三分量波形数据开展接收函数研究,进而约束该裂谷海域地区的地壳结构。结果分析表明,OBS方位校正后其获得的可用接收函数波形数量显著增多,并且利用纵波偏振分析校正后的数据处理获得了更加合理的地壳结构。基于在该裂谷地区获得的地壳构造结果,基里比斯盆地和裂谷扩张轴所在的古迪纳夫盆地呈现对比鲜明的地壳结构特征:古迪纳夫盆地的地壳厚度朝着裂谷扩张轴处减薄,其平均值为(33.3±2.42) km;基里比斯盆地的地壳厚度更薄,平均值为(24.1±5.44) km。此外,研究区域内所有OBS处均观测到了较高的地壳纵横波速比值,这可能是巴布亚超镁铁质岩体富集和古俯冲残片脱水熔融共同作用的结果。

     

  • 图  1  伍德拉克裂谷地区地形图

    紫色和黑色的圆圈分别表示含有效和无效数据的海底地震仪;红色三角为新生代火山;黑色虚线代表裂谷扩张轴,红色实线为欧文—斯坦利断裂带,绿色实线为地震测线(Fitz,Mann,2013)。右上插图代表了纵波(蓝色圆圈)和瑞雷波偏振分析(红色圆圈)所用的地震事件分布图,其中绿色三角形表示研究区域的中心位置。底部右侧插图中的黄色方块显示了研究区域的具体位置,其中红线为板块边界(Bird,2003)。AU:澳大利亚板块,SB:南俾斯麦板块,SS:所罗门海板块,WL:伍德拉克板块

    Figure  1.  Topographic map of the Woodlark rift showing the locations of the ocean bottom seismographs (OBSs)

    The purple and black stars represent OBSs with and without valid data,respectively. Red triangles denote Cenozoic volcanos. The black dashed lines indicate the rift axis. The red line represents the Owen-Stanley fault. The green lines are seismic profiles from previous study (Fitz,Mann,2013). The top-right inset presents the events used for the polarization analysis of Rayleigh wave (red circles)and P-wave (blue circles). The green star marks the center of the study area. The bottom right inset displays the location of the study area highlighted by the yellow rectangle. The red lines denote the plate boundaries (Bird,2003). AU:Australia;SB:South Bismarck;SS:Solomon Sea;WL:Woodlark

    图  2  (a) OBS水平分量的方位偏转示意图,χθ分别为OBS方位偏转角度和相对于北向水平分量的地震后方位角;(b) 地震台站B的瑞雷波偏振分析结果,图中蓝色圆圈为对应单事件最优方位偏转角度,红色虚线为该地震台站最终方位偏转角度(115.1°);(c) 地震台站B的纵波偏振分析结果,蓝色虚线表示最佳方位偏转角度,为108°

    Figure  2.  (a) A schematic map of coordinate system exhibiting the relationship between the geographical North direction,the North component and the back-azimuth (BAZ) of an event. $ \chi $ and θ indicate the sensor orientation and the BAZ of the event relative to the North component,respectively. (b) Example of the Rayleigh-wave polarization analysis from the station B. The blue circles represent the optimal sensor orientations determined from each event based on the maximum correlation coefficient between the vertical and the Hilbert transformed radial components. The red dash line depicts the resulting station orientation (115.1°). (c) The P-wave polarization analysis for determining orientation of station B. The blue dashed line depicts the optimal sensor orientation,which is 108°

    1  台站B瑞雷波(a)与P波(b)径向分量波形随不同台站方位角的变化

    瑞雷波和P波的波形数据分别来自于2010年3月4日和2010年4月30日发生的地震事件,图中红色波形对应最佳台站方位的情况

    1.  Waveform variations of Rayleigh wave (a) and P wave (b) in the radial component with sensor orientations

    Data for Rayleigh wave and P wave are from events occuring on March 4,2010 and April 30,2010,respectively. The red waveforms in (a) and (b) represent the condition with the optimal sensor orientation

    图  3  地震台站B方位偏转校正前(a)和后(b)的h-κ叠加结果

    上图中黑色和红色线分别为每条接收函数和时间域所有接收函数简单叠加后的波形;下图左侧表示归一化后的h-κ叠加能量图,图中红点(为叠加能量最强点)表示最终确定的地壳厚度h和纵横波速比值κvP/vS),NRFs为接收函数数量。右下图表示h-κ叠加能量图中不同纵横波速比值所对应的最大能量点连线。(b)中蓝色线为校正前接收函数的简单叠加波形

    Figure  3.  h-κ stacking results from representative station B before (a) and after (b) misorientation correction

    The upper panel shows individual (black trace) receiver functions (RFs) and a simple time-domain stack (red trace) of all RFs. The lower left panel illustrates the h-κ plot in which the maximum stacking amplitude (red dot) determines the optimal pair of crustal thickness h and vP/vS ratio κ. NRFs,number of receiver functions. The lower right panel displays the maxim stacking amplitude for each candidate vP/vS ratio in the h-κ plot. The blue trace in (b) represents the simple stacked RF trace in time domain before misorientation correction

    图  4  瑞雷波和纵波偏振分析得到的OBS方位结果对比图(a)以及本文和前人的地壳厚度结果(Abers et al,2016)对比图(b)。其中*表示前人研究的结果。

    Figure  4.  Comparisons of OBS orientations from the Rayleigh-wave and P-wave polarization analyses (a) and crustal thickness from this and previous (indicated by *) studies (Abers et al,2016), respectively

    2  纵波偏振分析得到的地震台站DEF的方位偏转角度,蓝色虚线对应角度为最终确定的结果

    2.  The P-wave polarization analysis for determining orientations of stations DE and F,respectively. The blue dashed line indicates the optimal sensor orientation

    5  与附图4类似,但为地震台站GHJ方位偏转角度结果

    5.  Same as Supplementary Fig. 4 but for stations GH and J

    6  地震台站D纵波偏振分析方位偏转校正前(a)后(b)的h-κ叠加结果对比图

    上图中黑色和红色线分别为每条接收函数和时间域所有接收函数简单叠加后的波形。下图左侧表示归一化后的h-κ叠加能量图,途中红点(为叠加能量最强点)表示最终确定的地壳厚度(Depth,缩写为Dep)和纵横波速比值(vP/vS),NRFs为接收函数数量。右下图表示h-κ叠加能量图中不同纵横波速比值随对应的最大能量点连线

    6.  h-κ stacking results from station D before (a) and after (b) misorientation correction from the P-wave polarization analysis

    The upper panel shows individual (black trace) receiver functions (RFs) and a simple time-domain stack (red trace) of all RFs. The lower left panel illustrates the h-κ plot in which the maximum stacking amplitude (red dot) determines the optimal pair of crustal thickness and vP/vS ratio. The lower right panel displays the maxim stacking amplitude for each candidate vP/vS ratio in the h-κ plot

    19  OBS方位校正前(a,b)与后(c,d)的地壳厚度和纵横波速比值结果对比图

    19.  Resulting crustal thickness and vP/vS ratios before (a,b) and after (c,d) misorientation corrections

    18  与附图12类似,但为地震台站J的结果

    18.  Same as Supplementary Fig. 12 but for station J

    13  和附图12类似,但为地震台站D的结果

    13.  Same as Supplementary Fig. 12 but for station D

    16  与附图12类似,但为地震台站G的结果

    16.  Same as Supplementary Fig. 12 but for station G

    17  和附图12类似,但为地震台站H的结果

    17.  Same as Supplementary Fig. 12 but for station H

    图  5  方位校正后地壳的平面(a,b)与剖面(c,d)结果图

    (a) 地壳厚度平面分布图;(b) 纵横波速比值平面分布图;(c) 地壳厚度(蓝色三角号)沿图(a)中AA′测线的剖面结果图,其中上图为地形起伏,下图红色波形为时深转换后的叠加接收函数,KB:基里比斯盆地,GB:古迪纳夫盆地,DI:当特尔卡斯托群岛);(d)地壳纵横波速比值(红色圆圈)沿(b)中AA′测线的剖面结果图

    Figure  5.  Planar (a,b) and vertical (c,d) display of the resulting crustal measurements after misorientation corrections

    (a,b) Crustal thickness and vP/vS ratio in planar view,respectively;(c) Vertical display of crustal thickness (blue triangles) along the AA′ profile in (a). The upper panel shows the topography. Red traces in the lower panel are the stacked RF traces after time-depth conversion. KB (Kiribisi Basin),GB (Goodenough Basin),DI (D’ Entrecasteaux Island);(d) Vertical display of crustal vP/vS ratio (red circles) along the AA′ profile in (b)

    3  与附图2类似,但为地震台站GHJ方位偏转角度结果

    3.  Same as Supplementary Fig. 2 but for stations GH and J,respectively

    4  瑞雷波偏振分析得到的地震台站DEF的方位偏转角度

    蓝色圆圈为通过每个地震的垂直分量和希尔伯特变换后的径向分量之间的最大相关系数确定的对应最优方位偏转角度,红色虚线为该地震台站的最终方位偏转角度

    4.  The Rayleigh-wave polarization analysis for determining orientations of stations DE and F,respectively

    The blue dots represent the optimal sensor orientations determined from each event based on the maximum correlation coefficient between the vertical and the Hilbert transformed radial components. The red dash line depicts the resulting station orientation

    7  和附图6类似,但为地震台站E的结果

    7.  Same as Supplementary Fig. 6 but for station E

    8  与附图6类似,但为地震台站F的结果

    8.  Same as Supplementary Fig. 6 but for station F

    9  和附图6类似,但为地震台站G的结果

    9.  Same as Supplementary Fig. 6 but for station G

    10  和附图6类似,但为地震台站H的结果

    10.  Same as Supplementary Fig. 6 but for station H

    11  和附图6类似,但为地震台站J的结果

    11.  Same as Supplementary Fig. 6 but for station J

    12  与附图6类似,但为地震台站B分别经过瑞雷波(a)和纵波(b)偏振分析校正后的地壳结果

    12.  Same as Supplementary Fig. 6 but for station B after misorientation corrections from the Rayleigh-wave polarization (a) and P-wave polarization (b) analyses,respectively

    14  与附图12类似,但为地震台站E的结果

    14.  Same as Supplementary Fig. 12 but for station E

    15  与附图12类似,但为地震台站F的结果

    15.  Same as Supplementary Fig. 12 but for station F

    表  1  纵波和瑞雷波偏振分析得到的每台OBS方位偏转角χ

    Table  1.   The resulting OBS orientations χ from analysis of the Rayleigh-wave and P-wave polarization analyses for each station

    台站瑞雷波偏振分析纵波偏振分析χ*
    χ/°STD/°χ/°STD/°
    B 115.1 0.55 108 3.03 116.8
    D 3.0 1.48 356 2.68 0.3
    E 176.0 1.65 168 3.17 183.1
    F 293.1 1.78 310 5.26 301.0
    G 44.2 1.92 29 7.68 47.2
    H 323.0 1.88 319 1.12 324.5
    J 131.8 2.53 144 12.97 143.9
    *STD为标准差;χ*为Eilon等(2014)基于瑞雷波偏振分析所得。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  本文和前人获得的地壳厚度h和纵横波速比值κ

    Table  2.   Crustal thickness h and vP/vS ratios κ from this and previous studies

    台站西经/°北纬/°h /kmh*/kmκ
    B9.749150.35030.4±0.2127.8±0.531.94±0.028
    D9.943150.70736.7±0.1644.9±0.731.89±0.005
    E10.080150.62134.2±2.69 1.82±0.059
    F9.950150.20031.7±0.9636.2±0.611.90±0.072
    G9.333149.66725.8±0.7331.5±0.842.04±0.039
    H9.000149.66816.8±0.7136.8±0.741.94±0.085
    J8.870149.93429.8±0.6039.2±0.381.99±0.043
    * h*为Abers等(2016)的结果。
    下载: 导出CSV

    1  不同后方位角(Baz)组分别求得的方位偏转角度($ \chi $

    1.   Resulting sensor orientations (χ) for different backazimuth (Baz) ranges

    台站Baz:0°— 90° Baz:90°—180° Baz:180°—270° Baz:270°—360°
    χN χ/°N χ/°N χ/°N
    B 118 2 101 4 110 17
    D 8 2 7 4 354 19
    E 168 1 169 2 168 18
    F 305 1 300 1 300 1 311 11
    G 19 1 19 6 39 1 30 15
    H 309 1 309 7 321 15
    J 134 3 148 11
    注:N表示地震事件的个数。
    下载: 导出CSV

    2  瑞雷波偏振分析方位校正前后的地壳厚度h和纵横波速比κ的值

    2.   Observations of crustal thickness h and Vp/Vs ratios κ before and after misorientation corrections from the Rayleigh-wave polarization (R-pol) analysis

    台站西经/°北纬/°h /kmh*/kmκκ*
    B9.749150.35021.5±0.6230.3±0.201.85±0.0261.95±0.010
    D9.943150.70736.7±0.5936.7±0.341.89±0.0491.89±0.022
    E10.080150.62132.1±1.5624.5±6.911.90±0.0252.14±0.073
    F9.950150.20027.3±0.6929.7±1.902.11±0.472.01±0.161
    G9.333149.66727.5±0.1524.4±1.091.91±0.0132.14±0.031
    H9.000149.66822.8±0.6726.4±2.271.74±0.0811.65±0.028
    J8.870149.93428.2±1.7629.8±0.491.71±0.0732.02±0.036
    *Results after misorientation corrections from the R-pol analysis
    *瑞雷波偏振分析校正后得到的地壳结果。
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-06-07
  • 修回日期:  2022-10-06
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-12-14

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