民众灾害意识国内研究现状与趋势

张腾飞 苏桂武 齐文华 魏本勇 裴敏超

张腾飞,苏桂武,齐文华,魏本勇,裴敏超. 2023. 民众灾害意识国内研究现状与趋势—基于科学计量学和文献内容分析的联合诊断. 地震学报,45(1):142−166 doi: 10.11939/jass.20210163
引用本文: 张腾飞,苏桂武,齐文华,魏本勇,裴敏超. 2023. 民众灾害意识国内研究现状与趋势—基于科学计量学和文献内容分析的联合诊断. 地震学报,45(1):142−166 doi: 10.11939/jass.20210163
Zhang T F,Su G W,Qi W H,Wei B Y,Pei M C. 2023. Development and future directions of the disaster awareness research in China:An integrated identification coupling scientometric method and literature content analysis. Acta Seismologica Sinica,45(1):142−166 doi: 10.11939/jass.20210163
Citation: Zhang T F,Su G W,Qi W H,Wei B Y,Pei M C. 2023. Development and future directions of the disaster awareness research in China:An integrated identification coupling scientometric method and literature content analysis. Acta Seismologica Sinica45(1):142−166 doi: 10.11939/jass.20210163

民众灾害意识国内研究现状与趋势基于科学计量学和文献内容分析的联合诊断

doi: 10.11939/jass.20210163
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(42077442,41661134013)和中国地震局重大政策理论与实践问题研究课题(CEAZY2020JZ11)共同资助
详细信息
    作者简介:

    张腾飞,在读博士研究生,主要研究方向为民众灾害意识研究,e-mail:18710492286@163.com

    通讯作者:

    苏桂武,博士,研究员,主要从事地震地质灾害机理与风险、地震灾害风险与备灾应急、地震社会学与减灾社会服务等方面的基础和应用基础研究,e-mail:suguiwu@ies.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: P315.9,P954

Development and future directions of the disaster awareness research in China:An integrated identification coupling scientometric method and literature content analysis

  • 摘要: 提升“灾害意识”是改善减灾行动增强减灾能力的先决条件。然而,灾害意识作为减灾领域乃至广大社会随时随处可闻可见的高频用语,关于其各个方面的学术研究尚不充分。本文基于CNKI数据库,采用CiteSpace软件,通过对1990—2019年已发表的与灾害意识相关的中文文献的科学计量,同时辅以对主要文献的内容分析,梳理和诊断了民众灾害意识研究的国内现状与发展趋势。结果显示:① 民众灾害意识研究已得到越来越多的关注,涉及学科领域宽广,呈现明显的多学科、跨学科特点;但相较其它灾害研究论题,特别是围绕灾害风险的研究而言,发文量偏少,关注度偏低。② 已有灾害意识研究大体可分为“灾害意识调查测量、灾害意识提升的正规教育路径、灾害意识提升的大众科普宣传、自下而上民众及基层层面减灾与灾害意识、自上而下政府层面减灾对策与民众灾害意识”等五大方面,但整体而言,研究深度上这几大方面均还有很大的发展空间。而从灾种背景来看,以围绕地震和气候/气象灾害的研究相对集中。③ 民众灾害意识研究呈现如下总体发展趋势:① 研究内容不断细化、深度不断加深,百花齐放态势明显;② 与减灾实际需求特别是民众与基层需求的结合越来越紧密,科学研究的政策/对策诉求突出;③ 宣传教育和气候变化背景下的气候/气象灾害则是当前的热点话题。最后针对以上现状与趋势,提出了几点急需的研究建议。

     

  • 图  1  1990—2019年国内围绕不同灾害主题研究的总发文量(a)和逐年发文量(b)对比

    Figure  1.  Total publication numbers (a) and annual publication numbers (b) of the research on different disaster–relevant topics in China during 1990—2019

    图  2  1990—2019年国内灾害意识研究的逐年发文数量

    Figure  2.  Annual publication numbers of the disaster awareness-focused researches in China during 1990—2019

    图  3  CNKI显示的国内灾害意识研究文献的学科属性分布

    标签中数字和百分比分别表示CNKI平台上,某一学科领域下灾害意识文献的发文数及其占灾害意识总发文数的百分比,且存在一篇文章属于多个学科的情况

    Figure  3.  Disciplinary attributes structure of the publications on disaster awareness identified by CNKI

    The labels indicate the publication number of different disciplines and its percentage of total publications on disaster awareness in CNKI,including some publications belong to multiple disciplines

    图  4  国内灾害意识研究的主要方面或视角

    该图聚类模块值Q为0.653 1 (大于临界值0.3),说明聚类效果比较显著,聚类平均轮廓值为0.862 4 (大于临界值0.5),说明聚类效果良好。图中每个节点表示一个关键词,节点越大则该关键词出现的频次越高;节点间连线反映了两两关键词的共现现象,连线越粗则其关系越密切(即共现强度越强);不同颜色表示某对关键词产生“共现现象”的时间先后,由紫到黄代表由老到新,每五年一个色阶

    Figure  4.  Main aspects or perspectives of disaster awareness research in China

    The index of modularity Q is 0.653 1 ( bigger than critical value 0.3),which indicates the result is significant. The index of Sihouetle is 0.862 4 (bigger than critical value 0.5),which means the result is acceptable. Each line between two nodes (a node represents a keyword) reflects the co-appearance of keywords. And the thicker the line,the closer the relationship between the two keywords (stronger of the strength of co-appearance). Each color,from purple to yellow (means from past to present),shows different time period (each period includes five years) of co-appearance

    图  5  不同时段的文献关键词共现图谱

    Figure  5.  Maps of the keywords co-appearance network of selected literature published in different periods

    图  6  关键词突现检测结果概况

    突现检测时间轴中,红色表示关键词存在突现现象的时间段(蓝色相反),且红色线条越长表示文献关键词突现现象的持续时间越长;通过设定参数,使得呈现出的关键词突现时长最短为2年;文献关键词按突现的起始时间自上而下先后排列

    Figure  6.  Summary of the result of keyword burst detection

    In burst timeline bar,red means the burst period of keywords (blue is the opposite),and the length of red line indicates the length of burst period. The minimum length of keywords’ burst period is not less than two years,through setting the parameters. According to the begin time of burst,keywords are arranged from top to bottom

    表  1  国内减灾领域对何为灾害意识的讨论

    Table  1.   Discussions on what is public awareness of disaster in China’s disaster reduction area

    来源关于何为灾害意识的讨论
    郭强(19922004 灾害即将发生或灾后对人类社会生活条件的破坏和灾后重建的客观事实,反映人们在心理上和思想上,
    形成的这一特定社会历史条件下的意识。灾害意识包括感觉、知觉、表象等感性认识以及概念、判断、
    推理等理性认识,也包括灾害法律、灾害文化、灾害哲学等的社会意识。
    李世泰(2007 灾害意识是人类特有的一种危机意识;是反应人们社会生活条件的社会意识、是对灾害现象的主观反映。
    灾害意识可分为灾前意识、灾中意识、灾后意识,主要包括:哲学意识、心理意识、思想意识和经济意识。
    张英等(2011 灾害意识应当包括:防灾知识、防灾技能、防灾态度、防灾认识观、价值观、参与观、法治观。
    王景秀等(2011 灾害意识会涉及到各种态度、危险意识、各种心态。
    中华人民共和国国家质量监督检验检疫总局和中国国家标准化管理委员会(2012 防灾减灾意识包括:公众对地震科学的认识、地震时避震措施和防震减灾知识的普及情况等。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  CNKI数据库中灾害意识文献的检索策略

    Table  2.   Search strategy of the literature focuses on disaster awareness in CNKI database

    项目本研究采用的方案
    文献来源数据库 中国知网(CNKI)数据库
    文献类型 期刊论文、会议论文、优秀硕士论文、博士论文
    时间跨度 1990年1月1日至2019年12月31日
    检索方式 高级检索;“篇名”或“关键词”;模糊检索
    检索表达式 灾害意识+减灾意识+防灾意识+防灾减灾意识+灾害安全意识+应急意识+灾害知识+减灾知识+
    防灾知识+防灾减灾知识+灾害安全知识+应急知识+减灾技能+防灾技能+防灾减灾技能+
    应急技能+灾害认知+灾害风险认知+风险认知+灾害感知+灾害风险感知+风险感知+灾害教育+
    减灾教育+防灾减灾教育+灾害安全教育+减灾宣传+防灾减灾宣传+灾害安全宣传+灾害科普+
    减灾科普+防灾科普+防灾减灾科普+减灾宣教+防灾宣教+防灾减灾宣教
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  CiteSpace关键词共现聚类与文献内容分析的关联过程与结果概述

    Table  3.   Brief summary of the connection process and results between CiteSpace’s keyword co-appearance clustering and literature content analysis

    CiteSpace关键词共现聚类结果文献内容分析
    类别高频关键词(前10个)不同类别的主要专业内容概括国内灾害意识研究的主要研究方向综合
    #0灾害教育 灾害教育;地理教学;教育课程;初中地理;
    策略探讨;实施现状;高中地理;教学策略;
    减轻灾害;灾难教育
    侧重灾害教育,地理教学,
    灾难教育
    ① 灾害意识调查测量;
    ② 灾害意识提升的正规
    教育路径;
    ③ 灾害意识提升的大众
    科普宣传;
    ④ 自下而上(bottom-up)
    民众及基层减灾与灾害
    意识;
    ⑤ 自上而下(top-down)
    政府层面减灾对策与民众
    灾害意识
    #1风险感知 风险感知;应对行为;响应机理;灾害事件;
    社区减灾;台风灾害;城乡居民;社区居民;
    防灾减灾意识;突发事件
    侧重风险感知(调查测量),应对/响应,民众与社区减灾,台风灾害
    #2自然灾害 自然灾害;风险管理;公众防灾教育;地震常识;感知风险;风险认知;防灾减灾教育;灾害地理;信仰意识;社会应对 侧重风险管理,风险感知,
    风险认知,灾害教育
    #3地震灾害 地震灾害;防灾减灾教育;公众认知;社区居民;社区减灾;防震减灾;地震对策;地震宣传;认知与响应;地震风险 侧重地震灾害,宣传教育,民众与社区减灾,认知与响应(调查测量)
    #4灾害意识 灾害意识;灾害文化;减灾意识;问卷调查;中学生;灾害治理;山地灾害;风险认知;西部社区;应急管理能力 侧重灾害意识/减灾意识/风险认知(调查测量),山地灾害,应急管理/灾害治理
    #5灾害 防灾减灾;灾害应对;城市社区;防灾减灾体系;地震常识;灾害管理;灾害救护;公众参与;地方性知识;暴雨灾害 侧重灾害应对,灾害管理,
    社区减灾,暴雨灾害
    #6防灾减灾 防灾减灾;灾害教育;宣传教育;高中地理;防震减灾知识;科普宣传;防震减灾对策;长效机制;减灾体系;应对能力 侧重灾害教育,科普宣传,
    防震减灾、减灾体系
    #7地质灾害 地质灾害;防灾意识;减灾意识;问卷调查;海洋灾害;风险认知;应急管理能力;灾害管理;防震减灾对策;山地灾害 侧重地质灾害,减灾意识/风险认知(调查测量),灾害管理,应急管理
    #8认知 地震灾害;玉树地区;宁洱地震;自然灾害;农村家庭;防震减灾知识;防震减灾对策;灾害防御;高中地理;防灾减灾工作 侧重地震灾害,减灾知识,
    减灾对策
    #9科普宣传 科普宣传;防震减灾;减灾战略;减灾意识;科普形式;减灾意识;减轻灾害;应急处置;灾害损失;减灾工程 侧重科普宣传,减灾知识/意识、
    减灾战略/工程
    #10灾害感知 灾害感知;减灾战略;生计策略;防灾减灾能力;灾害教育;农村居民;自然灾害;台风灾害;地区对比;灾害教育 侧重灾害感知,减灾战略,
    灾害教育,台风灾害
    #11气象灾害 气象灾害;气候变化;科普传播;科普信息;减灾意识;防灾意识;救灾工作;心理认知;适应行动;灾害管理体制 侧重气象灾害,科普宣传,
    减灾意识,心理认知
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  基于灾种背景差异的分类结果和每类侧重研讨的主要灾害意识相关内容

    Table  4.   Classification result grouped by the differences in hazards types focused on and their common or main disaster awareness-relevant topics addressed

    类别文献篇数主要或侧重讨论的灾害
    意识相关内容
    多灾种综合视角类413自上而下政府层面减灾对策
    与民众灾害意识
    灾害意识提升的正规教育路径
    灾害意识提升的大众科普宣传
    地震灾害类107各方面的研究内容均有涉及
    气候/气象灾害类53灾害意识调查测量
    其它灾种类56各方面的研究内容也均有涉及
    注:第三列的“主要或侧重研讨的灾害意识内容”即指2.2.3节诊断而来的“国内灾害意识研究的主要研究方面或视角”
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-10-23
  • 修回日期:  2022-01-18
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-12-13
  • 刊出日期:  2023-01-17

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